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2006年3月11日南京“泥雨”降尘特征及其粉尘来源
CHARACTERISTICS AND SOURCE OF RAIN DUST IN NANJING ON MARCH 11,2006

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李徐生 1   韩志勇 1   陈英勇 1   蔡元峰 2   杨达源 1  
文摘 对2006年春季南京地区一次"泥雨"形式的湿降尘特征进行了系统分析,并在此基础上对泥雨粉尘来源及泥雨降尘形成机制进行了探讨。结果表明:1)本次泥雨降尘通量为3.77g/m2,在南京全境的降尘总量达到2.49×104t;2)泥雨粉尘的质量磁化率值为174×10-8m3/kg,略高于黄土磁化率值;3)泥雨粉尘中<16μm的细粒组分占绝对优势(含量为91.91%),平均粒径6.05μm,众数粒径7.68μm;粒度参数及分布曲线显示泥雨粉尘具有比黄土和现代干降尘更好的分选性和更对称的峰态;4)XRD和SEM分析表明,泥雨粉尘以絮状矿物颗粒为主,其中粘土矿物含量最高,占57.7%,其他矿物有石英(15.5%),钠长石(12.0%)和微量的白云石(1.0%);5)泥雨粉尘的常量元素组成与黄土、现代干降尘以及上陆壳(UCC)大体相似,显示其主要为地壳源;而微量元素中Zn,Co,Ni,Ba,Cr,V,Cu,Zr,Cd和Pb等重金属元素含量较黄土及UCC偏高,其中Zn,Cu,Cd和Pb等含量显著偏高,显示了地壳源之外的人为污染源的影响;相比本地的下蜀黄土,南京泥雨粉尘样品的REE组成特征与北方黄土之间的相似程度更高,显示了更为密切的亲缘关系;6)根据泥雨降尘的特征,结合天气活动过程,可以判定此次南京泥雨降尘并非本地扬尘所致,而主要来源于北方尘暴活动所产生的细粒粉尘;寒潮冷锋的南侵提供了长距离输送动力,而长江下游海洋性暖湿气流对细粒粉尘的清除过程则最终导致了泥雨的形成;南京春季泥雨降尘事件实质上是长江下游地区对西北内陆干旱区沙尘暴活动的一种区域响应。
其他语种文摘 A typical "dust rain" incident occurred in Nanjing on March 11,2006.This paper systematically analyzed the characteristics of the dust carried by rain("rain dust"),and discussed the source of the dust and the mechanism of the occurrence of dust rain.Rain dust samples were collected from the suburb(ZJS Sample)and urban(CD Sample)areas respectively.Samples of the local Xiashu loess and Northern China loess from the Loess Plateau were also collected for comparative research.The magnetic susceptibility,grain size,major elements,trace elements,rare earth elements(REE),and micro-morphology of the all samples were measured.Compared with the loess and other modern dry dust fall,the rain dust has the following characteristics.(1)The dust flux of the dust rain is 3.77g/m2,which is about 1/5 of that of the dry dust fall in Beijing on April 17,2006.Hereby,we estimate that the dust rain brought totally about 2.49×104 ton dust falling in Nanjing region.(2)The magnetic susceptibility of the ZJS Sample is 174×10-8m3/kg,which is slightly higher than that of the loess;while the CD Sample is 258×10-8m3/kg,much higher than that of the loess.This is mainly due to the magnetic contamination.(3)Fine grain component(<16μm) predominates the grain size distribution of the rain dust(holds 91.91% proportion in ZJS Sample),and the mean grain size is 6.05μm while the mode grain size 7.68μm.It is shown by grain size parameters and distribution curves that the rain dust has a better sorting and a more symmetrical kurtosis than those of the loess and modern dry dust fall.(4)XRD and SEM analyses show that the rain dust is mainly composed of flocculent mineral particles,of which the clay minerals hold the most proportion(57.7%),while the quartz 15.5%,albite 12.0%,and dolomite 1.0%.(5)The major element composition of the rain dust is approximately similar to that of the loess,the modern dry dust fall and the upper continental crust(UCC),suggesting that it derived from the earth's crust.However some trace elements such as Zn,Co,Ni,Ba,Cr,V,Cu,Zr,Cd,Pb,etc.are higher than those of the loess and UCC,implying the impact of man-made pollution source besides the earth's crust source.The REE composition of the rain dust resembles more closely that of the Northern China loess than the local Xiashu loess,indicating a closer relationship between the rain dust and the Northern China loess.(6)According to the above mentioned characteristics of the rain dust and the synoptic process,we draw a conclusion that the dust fall carried by rain was the fine particles which were mainly originated from the Northern China duststorms instead of from the local dust emission.The southward attack of cold wave drove the fine particles for long distance.When they met the warm-wet air current in the lower reaches of the Changjiang River a dust rain occurred.The incident of dust rain occurred in Nanjing is virtually a regional response to the duststorms of the Northern China.
来源 第四纪研究 ,2009,29(1):43-54 【核心库】
关键词 泥雨 ; 粉尘 ; 湿降尘 ; 物质来源 ; 沙尘暴 ; 南京
地址

1. 南京大学地理与海洋科学学院, 江苏, 南京, 210093  

2. 南京大学地球科学与工程学院地球科学系, 江苏, 南京, 210093

语种 中文
文献类型 研究性论文
ISSN 1001-7410
学科 大气科学(气象学)
基金 国家自然科学基金 ;  中国科学院地球环境研究所黄土与第四纪地质国家重点实验室基金 ;  南京大学大型贵重仪器设备开放测试基金
文献收藏号 CSCD:3488879

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引证文献 6

1 徐志伟 库姆塔格沙漠地表物质组成、来源和风化过程 地理学报,2010,65(1):53-64
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2 李晋昌 黄土高原东部大气降尘量的空间和季节变化 中国环境科学,2013,33(10):1729-1735
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